By Norman Hampson
За прошлые 50 лет немного историков сделали такой выдающийся вклад в исследование 18-ого столетия Европой как Norman Hampson. Он написал много книг и многочисленных статей, имеющих дело с эпохой просвещениея и революционной Францией, преподавая в университетах Манчестера, Ньюкасла и Йорка. Через его письма и преподавание, не говоря уже о его роли в Обществе Исследования французской Истории, которой он был президентом со дня основания, он проявил глубокое влияние поколению ученых. Проявляя широкий культурный и интеллектуальный подход, эта коллекция эссе содержит вклады ученых 18-ого столетия Европы, тех пишет в темах, касающихся Просвещения и французской Революции, и кто знал его как коллегу, наблюдателя или друга. Уделяя внимание по-видимому разнообразныи предметам, как наука и армейская реформа, французский интерес к Китаю, Атлантическому рабству, и снабженные предисловием оценкой человека так же как историка, эти эссе связаны темами и подходами. Однако, "Просвещение и Революция" не являются просто оценкой его работы; эссе исследуют новые темы в истории периода и вновь исследуют некоторые из более знакомых аспектов французского Просвещения и Революции.Over the final 50 years few historians have made such an excellent contribution to the research of 18th-century Europe as Norman Hampson. He has written many books and diverse articles facing the Enlightenment and innovative France, whereas instructing on the Universities of Manchester, Newcastle and York. via his writing and instructing, let alone his position within the Society for the research of French heritage for which he used to be the founding President, he has exerted a profound impact over a new release of students. it really is to have a good time those lasting achievements that "Enlightenment and Revolution" has been assembled. Taking a vast cultural and highbrow method, this choice of essays includes contributions by way of fellow students of 18th-century Europe, who write on subject matters with regards to the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, and who've recognized him as colleague, manager or pal. masking such probably different topics as technology and armed forces reform, French curiosity in China, Atlantic slavery and the hyperlinks among Voltaire and Hume, and prefaced via an appraisal of the fellow in addition to the historian, those essays are associated by means of issues and ways that undergo the hallmark of Norman Hampson's effect. even if, "Enlightenment and Revolution" isn't really easily an appreciation of his paintings; the essays discover new subject matters within the historical past of the interval and reconsider a number of the extra known elements of the French Enlightenment and Revolution. As such, they supply a tribute to the spirit and writings of Norman Hampson.--
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Additional resources for Crook Enlightenment and Revolution
W. Blanning, Joseph II, London, 1994, pp. 138-42. 48 67 What would become of our old hegemony, our dignity, the balance of power in Europe and our own security if we ceased to be regarded as the protector of the weaker states against the three predators [Austria, Prussia, Russia]? Had a decision been taken to step down from the rank to which we had been raised by Henry IV, Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu, the celebrated Treaty of Westphalia and the glory of Louis XIV? - Those were the comments made everywhere, in all classes of the population, from the galleries of Versailles to the cafes of the Palais Royal, that new political rendezvous.
49 As the title of L'Autrichienne en goguettes indicated, the attacks on Marie-Antoinette arraigned her as a foreigner, an enemy to France. This was the third set of charges laid against her. Indeed the ftrst hostile pamphlet - Antoinette ou La nouvelle Pandore - was not obscene at all, but concentrated on her Austrian origins. 50 Particularly frequent was the accusation that she had diverted millions of Livres in gold from the French treasury to her Austrian brother, an indictment which reached a climax at her trial in 1793, when the public prosecutor, Fouquier-Tinville, used sexual imagery to describe her relations with foreign powers.
As it was well known that she had been working as a prostitute in Paris before she caught the eye of a royal procurer, the sensation caused by her appearance at court can be easily imagined. Madame de Genlis recorded that on Madame du Barry's first appearance there, all the women got up and moved away from her: 'nothing so scandalous had ever been seen there, not even under la Pompadour. s It was equally well-known that the king lavished huge sums on his new favourite: according to Werner Sombart, during her five years at court (1769-74) Madame du Barry got through 12,481,803 livres.