By Andrew Carnie
This publication explores the empirical and theoretical points of constituent constitution in common language syntax. It surveys a wide selection of functionalist and formalist theoretical ways, from dependency grammars and Relational Grammar to Lexical sensible Grammar, Head-driven word constitution Grammar, and Minimalism. It describes the normal assessments for constituency and the formal capacity for representing them in word constitution grammars, prolonged word constitution grammars, X-bar idea, and set theoretic naked word constitution. In doing so it offers a transparent, thorough, and rigorous axiomatic description of the structural houses of constituent timber. Andrew Carnie considers the important controversies on constituent constitution. Is it, for instance, a primitive proposal or may still or not it's derived from relational or semantic shape? Do sentences have a unmarried constituency or a number of constituencies? Does constituency function on unmarried or a number of dimensions? And what precisely is the categorial content material of constituent constitution representations? He identifies issues of commonality in addition to vital theoretical transformations one of the a number of ways to constituency, and seriously examines the strengths and obstacles of competing frameworks. This new version contains textual revisions in addition to a brand new ultimate bankruptcy and guarantees that Constituent Structure is still the definitive consultant to constituency for complex undergraduates and graduate scholars, in addition to theoretical linguists of all persuasions in departments of linguistics, cognitive technological know-how, computational technology, and comparable fields.
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Extra resources for Constituent Structure
G. N and O in (1)) are intermediate nodes. In some early works in generative grammar (and the practice survives to some degree today), a distinction was made between terminals and preterminals. Consider the following simple tree: S NP VP D N V preterminals the man left terminals As we will see in Chapter 5, this kind of tree is at least partly an artifact of the way individual words came to be associated with their category in phrase structure grammar theories. ), which are the preterminals. In this kind of tree, syntactic rules, principles, and constraints make reference only to the preterminals nodes.
8, and the discussion of multidimensional tree structures in Ch. 10). We must also exclude trees like that in (8) (where arrows indicate a downwards dominance relation, even when the relation is not downwards on the page), where, even though the tree is connected, there is not a single root: A * B C (McCawley 1989) In order to disallow structures such as (7) and (8), we need the axiom in (A2):10 A2. The Single-Root Condition: (9x 8y 2 N) [x /* y]. 9 This deWnition is based on that of Higginbotham (1982/1985), although the idea dates back to at least Wall (1972), who changed Zwicky and Isard’s asymmetric dominance to dominance, which is both reXexive and antisymmetric.
The next section is devoted to this question. 1, we discussed the fairly vague idea that certain words go together—on an intuitive level—pointing towards the claim that sentences are organized hierarchically, rather than linearly. 2, we saw that one typical approach to a purely linearly organized sentence structure (regular grammars) seems to fail on conceptual and empirical grounds. Instead, a richer, hierarchical, structure is needed. The fact that such hierarchical structures can be referred to by other grammatical processes provides not only evidence for their existence, but also drives the Wnal nail into the coYn of a concatenation/Wnite state11 account of word combinatorics.