By Jeffrey C. King
Because the overdue Nineteen Seventies, the orthodox view of complicated 'that' words (e.g., 'that girl consuming a granola bar') has been that they're contextually delicate units of direct reference. In advanced Demonstratives, Jeffrey King demanding situations that orthodoxy, exhibiting that quantificational bills not just are as potent as direct reference bills but additionally deal with a much wider variety of information. After offering arguments opposed to direct reference bills of 'that' words and constructing a quantificational thought of them, King seems on the interplay of 'that' words with modal operators, negation, and verbs of propositional angle. He argues for proof of scope interplay among 'that' words and different scoped components. King additionally addresses semantic houses of 'that' and different determiners, and the potential for extending the semantics of 'that' words to 'that' as a syntactically easy demonstrative. ultimately, he argues opposed to what he calls ambiguity techniques, theories that carry that a number of the makes use of of 'that' words can't be handled by way of a unmarried semantical idea.
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Additional info for Complex Demonstratives: A Quantificational Account
For particular world and time w,t). Being jointly instantiated is a property a pair of properties possess at some worlds, those where they have a common instance, and fail to possess at other worlds. 18 Thus, in cases in which a speaker uses a `that' phrase with a descriptive intention, her intention determines both a property or conjunction of properties, the unique satis®er of which she intends to talk about, and the property of pairs of properties of being jointly instantiated. The former property occupies the second argument 47 THREE QUANTIFICATIONAL ACCOUNTS OF `THAT' PHRASES place in the four-place relation expressed by `that', and the latter property occupies the third argument place.
These, of course, are descriptive intentions and perceptual intentions. And it might reasonably be thought that it is which of these two kinds of intentions a speaker has in using a `that' phrase that determines whether the use is rigid or not. After all, in having a perceptual intention, a speaker intends to ``talk about'' a particular object, and in having a descriptive intention, not. This might, by whatever mechanism, result in uses involving an intention of the former kind being rigid and uses involving intentions of the latter kind not being rigid (except in unusual cases).
Here again, no demonstrations or the sorts of intentions that accompany them are present. Thus, the direct reference theorist must hold that the predicative material `mistress of his' alone determines the character of the `that' phrase. But it is hard to see how this could be. For character determination is supposed to occur ``prepropositionally,'' and is part of the explanation as to why a given sentence expresses a given proposition. However, because the pronoun `his' is anaphoric on and apparently bound by `some senator', it will not be assigned any value prepropositionally.