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Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic by Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard

By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard

This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics concerning the research of stressful and point (TA) markers in numerous languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal international and the actual global” (Declerck). All contributions, in addition, take on those difficulties from a roughly cognitive standpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to offer a unifying reason behind all utilization forms, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the basis that the semantics of TA different types primarily refers to subjective, instead of aim, matters. the amount additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to collect bills of TA marking (in quite a few languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. finally, this quantity goals to give a contribution to constructing an information that modal that means parts are at once correct to the research of the grammar of time.

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Extra resources for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality

Example text

This clause refers to a counterfactual situation (=a situation that does not actualize in the factual world because it is incompatible with this world). g. There are many different kinds of t-world, such as worlds that are factual, ‘theoretical’ (see below) or counterfactual at t. Situations that are located in such worlds are represented as actualizing in them. Thus, the situations referred to by John is ill, If only John was ill! and John is perhaps ill are each time represented as actualizing in a given S-world, but that S-world is, respectively, the factual world, a counterfactual S-world (=an S-world which is conceived of by the speaker as being incompatible with the factual world) and a ‘theoretical’ S-world which is represented as possibly coinciding with the factual world.

I. Counterfactuality is expressed by ‘counterfactual’ conditional clauses like If I were you... or If I had been there at the time... Secondly, the factuality values in between the extremes ‘factual’ and ‘counterfactual’ can be referred to as relative factuality values. ) Unlike the extremes, they all imply some degree of uncertainty on the part of the speaker: the modal world is represented neither as coinciding with the factual world nor as being incompatible with it. Thirdly, of the values on the specified epistemic scale, only the relative factuality values and the counterfactuality value are modal values.

In other words, the situation is counterfactual in the factual S-world, but at the same time envisaged as possible in a future world.  Renaat Declerck By contrast, utterances that are interpreted in terms of root modality (or nonepistemic modality) are concerned with factors that determine the actualization of the residue situation, as in the following examples: (28) You may leave tomorrow. ) (29) You {can/cannot} buy tickets in the office over there. ) (30) The fugitives must leave the country because their visas expired last week.

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