By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Clouds have an effect on the weather of the Earth, and they're an immense consider the elements. consequently, their radiative homes needs to be understood in nice element. This ebook summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical houses, for instance their skill to take in, transmit, and mirror mild, which is dependent upon the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical features similar to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and constructions. additionally, difficulties relating to the picture move via clouds and cloud distant sensing are addressed during this e-book in nice detail.
This booklet could be an immense resource of knowledge on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers.
All uncomplicated principles of optics as with regards to scattering of sunshine in clouds (e.g. Mie concept and radiative move) are thought of in a self constant means. for this reason, the publication is usually an invaluable textbook to beginners to the field.
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Extra info for Cloud Optics
123) such that π 2π Csca = dφ 0 0 The results for scattering patterns are usually presented in the form of plots Csca (θ ) because then a constant factor r 2 /I0 is eliminated. 124) which is called the phase function. 125) where we used Eqs. 123). Clearly [see Eq. 124)], the function p(θ ) gives the conditional probability of photon scattering in a given direction. It follows from Eq. 125) in the case of an equal probability of light scattering in all directions: p(θ ) = 1. For Mie scattering considered here, we have: p(θ ) = 2π (i 1 + i 2 ) .
We choose the parameter μ = 6 for the marine model because it provides physically plausible dependence of the PSD on V at small values of V : f (V ) ∼ V 2 , where V is the volume of a droplet. 4. Cloud systems can easily cover an area S ≈ 106 km2 (Kondratyev and Binenko, 1984). So the total amount of water W = w S (for idealized clouds having the same LWP for the whole cloudy area) stored in such a water cloud system is equal approximately to 1011 kg, if we assume that w = 100 g/m2 , which is a typical value for cloudy media (see Fig.
It should be pointed out that for numerical reasons, the calculation of Cabs for weakly absorbing particles is usually done with Eq. , 2003)) because the calculation using the difference Cext − Csca can have large errors because Cext ≈ Csca then. 161) where the superposition principle was used. The substitution of Eq. 161) in Eq. 162) where 1 Re Ei Hi∗ n, 2 1 Is = Re Es H∗s n, 2 1 Ie = Re Es Hi∗ + Ei H∗s n. 165) CLOUD OPTICS 54 The value of Ii gives the intensity of incident light. Is is the intensity of scattered light.