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Climate Change Science Compendium 2009 by United Nations

By United Nations

"The weather swap technological know-how Compendium" is a overview of a few four hundred significant medical contributions to our figuring out of Earth platforms and weather which have been published via peer-reviewed literature or from examine associations during the last 3 years, because the shut of analysis for attention by means of the IPCC Fourth overview document. The Compendium isn't a consensus rfile or an replace of the other strategy. as a substitute, it's a presentation of a few intriguing clinical findings, interpretations, principles, and conclusions that experience emerged between scientists. concentrating on paintings that brings new insights to elements of Earth approach technology at numerous scales, it discusses findings from the foreign Polar 12 months and from new applied sciences that increase our talents to determine the Earth's structures in new methods. proof of unforeseen premiums of switch in Arctic sea ice quantity, ocean acidification, and species loss emphasizes the urgency had to boost administration thoughts for addressing weather switch.

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3: What Causes Sea Level to Change? Prior to about 1990, ocean thermal expansion accounted for slightly more than 50 per cent of global sea-level rise. Since then the contribution from thermal expansion has declined to about 15 per cent but this decrease has been countered by increases in glacier and ice cap and in ice sheet contributions. By 2006, glaciers and ice caps contributed about 32 per cent of the total sea-level rise, while the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctic together contributed about 20 per cent (Milne et al.

2008, Scheffer et al. 2001, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Ocean acidification will be affecting coral reefs and the ecosystems that depend on them in the more temperate latitudes because the processes involved are more robust in colder water. Coral reefs in warmer waters are subjected to the threat of coral bleaching. 9: Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs The coldwater reefs are highly susceptible to ocean acidification from climate change, which has its greatest impacts at high latitudes, while tropical reefs will become severely damaged by rising sea temperatures.

2007, Lenton et al. 2009). ACIDIFICATION Further physical changes in the world’s oceans can be attributed to mounting concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. While increases in water temperature and fluctuations between fresh and saline water affect circulation at the surface and with vertical exchange, the repercussions from increasing concentrations of CO2 in the oceans introduce a separate but related threat. The ocean’s role in absorbing anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere has been underway for over two centuries.

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