By Arie S. Issar, Mattanyah Zohar
This survey of the traditional degrees of lakes, rivers and the ocean, in addition to alterations within the compositions of stalagmites and sediments unearths an marvelous correlation of weather alterations with the emergence and cave in of civilizations within the center East. The authors finish that weather switch has been the decisive consider the background surrounding the origins of the "cradle of civilization".
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Additional info for Climate change : environment and history of the Near East
Also the archaeologist H. E. negatively impacted settlements in the region. A few years later H. Weiss presented his view that the decline of the Late Bronze Age civilization in the Near East was the result of climatic change. Subsequently, the climatologist J. Neumann as well as the archaeologist R. 14 9 I. Troen, “Calculating the “Economic Absorbtive Capacity” of Palestine: A Study of the Political Uses of Scientiﬁc Research” Contemporary Jewry 10/2:19–38 (1989). 10 “Encyclopaedia Hebraica”, Encyclopaedia Pub.
Furthermore, by burning the native bush and tree vegetation in order to promote the growth of fresh fodder, the nomads destroyed the natural plant cover in the most arid and sensitive landscapes (and continue to do so). Therefore, to Wilkinson’s point that continuous cultivation exacerbated soil erosion, Zohar would add the deleterious effect of herds grazing on the stubble of ﬁelds – normally seen as a vision of pastoral tranquility that can be seen all over the area of the Fertile Crescent towards the end of a rainless summer.
The preceding discussion has illustrated the constraint of using pollen as proxy data for reconstructing paleo-climates, particularly with the development of agriculture and human interference with the natural vegetation. These data, therefore, should be compared with other time-series of proxy data before arriving at conclusions about paleo-climatic scenarios. One source of these data is Lake Van in eastern Anatolia12 (Fig. 3). T. , Wong, S. Kempe and F. Kurtman, “A geological study of Lake Van, Eastern Turkey” Geologische Rundschau 73:701–734 (1984).