By Matthew Reeve
Cleft buildings have lengthy awarded an analytical problem for syntactic concept. This monograph argues that clefts and comparable structures can't be analysed in a straightforwardly compositional demeanour. as an alternative, it proposes that the locality stipulations on amendment (for instance by means of a restrictive relative clause) needs to be reformulated such that they account for the plain compositionality of DP-internal amendment when additionally allowing ‘discontinuous’ amendment of the kind that is independently wanted for structures similar to relative clause extraposition. The empirical concentration of the booklet is on clefts in English and Russian, that have an identical interpretation yet significantly divergent syntactic constructions. the writer argues that, regardless of those syntactic variations, either different types of cleft are mapped to their semantic interpretations within the similar demeanour. This monograph should be crucial analyzing for these engaged on cleft structures and copular sentences extra in general, and should be of curiosity to these engaged on the syntax-semantics interface.
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Additional resources for Clefts and their Relatives
And Sornicola (1988:â•›348) among others, the agreement in features is only partial: the cleft clause verb normally agrees with the clefted XP for number but not for person. 31 It is less clear that it is incompatible with a syntactic modifier specified as [+human], since there is no independent evidence (such as agreement on the copula) showing this. If we compare clefts with other types of specificational sentences, however, it becomes clear that the former are restricted by the [±human] specification of the clefted XP in a way that the latter are not:32 (59) a.
Ii) α c-commands β iff α does not dominate β and there is no δ that dominates α and not β. (iii) δ is a barrier for α iff (i) δ is an Xmax that dominates β and (ii) δ is not θ-governed (directly θ-marked). (iv) δ (δ = Xmax) excludes α if no segment of δ dominates α. (v) δ (δ = Xmax) dominates α only if every segment of δ contains α. e. β is an extraposed phrase which can take α as its antecedent – MJR], only if α and β are in a Â�government relation. e. to overt rather than to underlying representations).
As shown in (40), extraction from clefts patterns with extraction from extraposed restrictive relatives rather than with extraction from complement clause wh-islands. Adjunct extraction is completely Â�ungrammatical in all three cases, as shown in (40b,c,f), while object extraction is considerably worse from extraposed relatives or clefts than from complement Â�wh-islands, as shown in (40a,c,e) respectively: (40) a. *[Which drink]i did you see a man yesterday [who bought ti]? *Howi did you see a man yesterday [who bought the drink ti]?