By Simon Collier
Simon Collier examines the formative interval of the Chilean republic's background. He combines an research of the guidelines and assumptions of the Chilean political category with a story of the political strategy from the consolidation of the Conservative regime within the 1830s, to the start of the liberalization within the early 1860s. Chile's solid and more and more liberal political culture was once cast in severe and infrequently violent conflicts among the dominant Conservative occasion (which ruled in a frequently authoritarian demeanour from 1830 to 1858) and the becoming forces of political Liberalism. an important political realignment in 1857-8 prepared the ground for entire liberalization.
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Extra resources for Chile: The Making of a Republic, 1830-1865: Politics and Ideas
The most obvious mainstay was repression. It was a recurrent theme until 1861, after which it disappeared altogether for thirty years. Compared with the twentieth century’s dismal record of repression (in Chile as elsewhere) it was not monstrously bloody, although it certainly had its rough edges. Nor was it comprehensive. Governments usually targeted only the ringleaders of opposition movements or revolts. ”17 The penalties meted out to those repressed were not especially savage. Capital punishment (by ﬁring squad) was used as a civil sanction for murderers: executions were well attended, mostly by the poor.
Both proposals were found far too reactionary by the constituent convention. Andr´es Bello was evidently consulted about the ﬁnal text, to what extent we do not know. During his early years in Chile, his intellectual authority was usually exercised reticently. 2 The most striking feature of the 1833 Constitution was a strong presidency. The president, elected by “electors” in the departments (the main provincial subdivisions), was allowed two consecutive ﬁve-year terms, and a third after an intervening term.
A trader visiting in 20 For habilitaci´on, see Cavieres, Comercio, ch. 4; for Bordes, Barbance, chs. iv–vi. 21 Recollections of a Ramble, pp. 12, 18. 22 Francisco Palma, “A Valpara´ıso,” Mensajero, No. 739, November 12, 1855. For interesting photographs of Valparaiso in 1860–1, see Alvaro Jara, Chile en 1860. William L. Oliver. Un precursor de la fotograf´ıa (1973), pp. 70–78. 23 Cornwallis, II, 17–18. 24 MV, No. 9805, May 12, 1860. ” Fourteen years later, El Mercurio described it as more “a Hanseatic city” than part of Chile.