By Noel P. Mailvaganam, M.R. Rixom
Chemical admixtures are utilized in concrete combinations to provide specific engineering houses corresponding to fast hardening, water-proofing or resistance to chilly. Chemical Admixtures for Concrete surveys contemporary advancements in admixture know-how, explaining the mechanisms in which admixtures produce their results, a number of the varieties of admixtures to be had, their choice and use.
Because of the economies they could provide, admixtures are getting used more and more in civil engineering tasks around the world. The ebook will pay specific recognition to solid perform and features a designated bankruptcy at the foreign criteria presently in strength.
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Extra resources for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, Third Edition
14 The effect of water-reducing admixtures on paste viscosity at various water— cement ratios. 4 Typical water reductions of cement paste at normal addition levels of admixture to maintain paste viscosity associated ion and water molecule ‘sheath’, probably exists to a significant level at interparticle distances of up to 15 nm. Thus in normal cement pastes where particles come into close contact with each other there is a tendency for cement pastes to form large ‘flocs’ due to the attractive van der Waals forces holding particles together.
This process continues through the mixing, d i s c h a rg i n g , h a n d l i n g , p l a c i n g , v i b r a t i n g a n d fi n i s h i n g a n d a ny changes in the rate at which workability is lost can affect any or all of these steps. The loss of workability generally appears to be more pronounced with mixes containing water-reducing admixtures and is illustrated in Fig. 29 . All mixes were designed to initial slump ( A S T M ) o f 1 0 c m a n d h a d a c e m e n t c o n t e n t o f 3 0 0 k g m -3 .
This results in a repulsion of the particles by electrostatic means and the interparticle friction in the system is reduced so that the energy required to induce flow into the system is also reduced. There is a possibility that, © 1999 Roger Rixom and Noel Mailvaganam particularly where multiple layers of molecules are concerned, steric hinderence may be a factor. The presence of the admixture at the surface, depending on the forces between the admixture and the surface will impose an additional barrier to the diffusion of hydration products, therefore increasing the length of the dormancy period.