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Building Failures: Diagnosis and Avoidance by W.H. Ransom

By W.H. Ransom

Lately development disasters and the ensuing proceedings and awards for damages have usually been within the information. the largest headlines can have been reserved for structural disasters and entire collapses. yet we should always no longer omit the fewer newsworthy mess ups corresponding to leaky roofs, damp partitions, dropped foundations and rotted bushes. This ebook provides sensible advice at the prevention of failure through describing the character and reason for the commonest defects in constructions, after which indicates how they need to be kept away from in layout and development.

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The only metamorphic rocks of significance for 36 DURABILITY OF MATERIALS Fig. 4 Contour scaling of sandstone. building purposes in the UK are marble (derived from limestone) and slate (derived from clays). Marble is used for cladding and is very durable: it is not immune from attack by sulphur gases but this is rare in reality. Slates are used for roofing, for cladding and as DPCs. Roofing slates are exposed to the most severe conditions and can be affected by sulphur gases. Those slates conforming to BS 680 [19], however, are highly resistant to attack.

1 are those which could be caused by changes in moisture content likely to be encountered in environments common to normal buildings. This should be taken as a guide only and the specialist literature should be consulted if more precise values of movement under defined changes in the moisture regime are sought. 4 Moisture The special position of moisture as the principal agent causing deterioration is mentioned in Chapter 2. Moisture cannot be totally excluded from buldings: a knowledge of the main sources of moisture, however, will enable steps to be planned to minimize the total amounts trapped, entering or generated in a building and so help reduce or prevent some of its detrimental influences.

Water is then squeezed out of the soil and the soil particles move closer together. As the ground is compressed or consolidated in this way, the foundations settle, until equilibrium is achieved between the load imposed on the soil and the forces acting between its particles. The more clay there is contained in the soil, the longer does it take for this equilibrium to be achieved. With soils wholly of clay, such settlement may go on for years while, with sands, it is rapid and is substantially finished by the time building is completed.

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