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Broadening the Genetic Bases of Crop Production by H D Cooper, Toby Hodgkin, Charlie Spillane

By H D Cooper, Toby Hodgkin, Charlie Spillane

This ebook specializes in the formerly ignored interface among the conservation of plant genetic assets and their usage. in basic terms via usage can the aptitude price of conserved genetic assets be realised. even though, as this publication indicates, a lot conserved germplasm needs to be subjected to long term pre-breeding and genetic enhancement earlier than it may be utilized in plant breeding programmes.The authors discover the explanation and methods for such pre-breeding efforts because the foundation for broadening the genetic bases of crop creation. Examples from various significant meals plants are provided and matters analysed through prime professionals from world wide.

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This was overcome first by the introduction of pre-adapted germplasm from West Asia, and secondly by the production of new hybrids. Baudoin et al. D. Cooper et al. crosses to develop composite populations adapted to maize/bean mixtures. Farmers will practise further selection within these mixtures. Grando et al. (Chapter 22, this volume) highlight the value and importance of barley landraces as a genepool for breeding programmes. Selections from diverse landrace populations can reveal high-yielding genotypes, which can be used directly, crossed in breeding programmes, or used in reconstituted mixtures.

This last reason may result from insufficient plant breeding capacity in the country concerned or the use of breeding strategies that do not result in varieties with the traits needed by farmers (Cromwell and Wiggins, 1993; Witcombe, Chapter 26, this volume). Because of these latter factors, improved varieties can often show low adoption rates. On a local level, it has been suggested that some existing local varieties, or groups of local varieties, may actually have quite narrow genetic bases as a result of a previous genetic bottleneck due to past events or widely fluctuating environmental conditions (Wood and Lenné, 1996).

1996) Farmer participatory crop improvement. III. Participatory plant breeding, a case for rice in Nepal. Experimental Agriculture 32, 479–496. A. (1969) Evolutionary plant breeding. Crop Science 9, 119–121. W. and Cervigni, R. (1994) The Appropriation of the Benefits of Plant Genetic Resources for Agriculture: an Economic Analysis of the Alternative Mechanisms for Biodiversity Conservation. Background Study Paper No. 1, FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, FAO, Rome. UNEP (1997) The Biodiversity Agenda: Decisions from the Third Meeting of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Buenos Aires, 4–15 November, 1996.

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