By Henry G. Bray

This e-book is set solvable teams. It focusses on specific sessions of finite solvable teams (supersolvable, M-group, etcetera) giving, in every one case, at the least the fundamental effects approximately that category. we have now selected to contemplate purely sessions which include ~. the category of all finite nilpotent teams. This

choice isn't as capricious because it first seems. a number of effects confirmed in bankruptcy five express that ~ is contained in all sessions that are "well-behaved" in a variety of senses (Most striking of those effects is that ~ is contained in all formations that are in the neighborhood outlined by way of a procedure of nonempty formations).

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**Example text**

Then the function T from G into GL( V) defined by T(a) = Ta is a representation of G of degree g, since T(ab) =Tab= Ta Tb= T(a)T(b) for all a,b in G. This representation is called the regular representation of G. The character cl> afforded by the regular representation of G is called the regular character of G. Obviously cl>(l) = g and cl>(x) = 0 for x =I= 1. Since (cI>,nc =I= 0 for any irreducible character K of G, every irreducible representation of G is a constituent of chapter 2, pages 46/47 the regular representation.

Let a 1,a 2, ••• , ag be the elements of G and V be a g-dimensional vector space. Let {va I , va 2, ... , vag } be a basis of V indexed by elements of G. Each element a of G determines a unique linear transformation Ta of V which sends va, to va,a• for i = 1,2, ... , g. Then the function T from G into GL( V) defined by T(a) = Ta is a representation of G of degree g, since T(ab) =Tab= Ta Tb= T(a)T(b) for all a,b in G. This representation is called the regular representation of G. The character cl> afforded by the regular representation of G is called the regular character of G.

This and T maximal in Q yield T is 2-maximal, hence Sqn, in G. But this means that MT is a subgroup of G of index q, contradicting the maximality of M. Hence c = 1 and [ G: M] = q. By Ruppert's characterization, G is supersolvable. A dualization of Wielandt's characterization of nilpotent groups as groups in which every maximal subgroup is normal, was developed by N. Ito. A key result is the following lemma which will not be proved here (reference: [Huppert 1967, p. 435]). Ito's Lemma Let p be an odd prime.