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Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, February by Paul Bloom & Barbara L. Finlay (Editors)

By Paul Bloom & Barbara L. Finlay (Editors)

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Extra resources for Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2009

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Given cues to low or unstable male parental investment, one adaptive solution would be to reproduce early and maintain high levels of dependence upon close kin. Because kin are usually already invested in the survival and reproductive success of their genetic relatives, we hypothesize that the care-eliciting strategies associated with ambivalent attachment directed specifically toward kin have the best chance of successfully extracting investment for a female’s offspring. In contrast, similar strategies directed toward peers may result in alienation.

Many homeless youth begin to engage in sexual activity at an early age – sometimes as the result of relationships and sometimes as a means to an end (survival sex). Del Giudice’s reference to Sroufe et al. (1993) concerning the intersection between life stress, insecure attachment patterns, and early violation of gender boundaries in middle childhood has particular resonance. A number of youths seem to become highly sexualized in their behavior relatively early in life, with flirtation becoming a dominant form of communication and connectivity.

Having only one copy of each gene means that every “bad” allele is expressed. A mediating factor for the gender genetic differences may be stress (Als 1986; Als et al. 1994; 2004; Heckman et al. 2005). Phillips (2007) claims that antenatal stress has life-long effects that vary among men and women, and suggests the possibility of gender dimorphic environmental fetal programming. Davis and Emory (1995) show gender dimorphic stress reaction in healthy, full-term infants prior to extensive socialization.

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