By Arnold Eckardstein
This e-book supplies an summary on vital mechanisms interested by atherosclerosis and thereby provides pursuits a few of that are used and others that could be important for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. because atherosclerosis is a multifactorial sickness the scientifc procedure has to be multidisciplinary. for that reason, the authors of this booklet signify diversified parts of technique starting from easy, scientific and inhabitants study in addition to diversified fields of workmanship starting from metabolism to immunology and irritation biology and to vascular biology.
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Extra info for Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs
This result in itself is not surprising, because it is known from other inﬂammatory conditions with known eliciting antigens that antigen-speciﬁc cells constitute a minority of inﬁltrating T cells. Furthermore, there is little data to support the concept of antigen-speciﬁc T-cell recruitment, suggesting instead that T-cell inﬁltrates arise by predominantly non-antigen speciﬁc recruitment, which may be followed by local, clonal, antigen-driven proliferation (Stemme 2001). Many studies performed in recent years have shown pronounced effects of immunization or different approaches to immunosuppresion (Ameli et al.
The scheme is a modiﬁcation of the current recommendations of the American Heart Association (AHA) as proposed by Renu Virmani and colleagues (Virmani et al. 2000). The boxed areas represent the seven categories of lesion. Dashed lines have been used for two categories (intimal xanthoma, intimal thickening) because there is controversy over the role that these categories play in the initial phase of lesion formation and both categories can exist without progressing to a ﬁbrous cap atheroma (AHA type IV lesion).
2002). Moreover, IL-18 acts synergistically together with IL-12 to induce IFNγ secretion by T cells, natural killer cells and macrophages (Munder et al. 1998). In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, IL-12 was shown to promote lesion development (Lee et al. 1999a). IFNγ plays a central role in inducing and modulating the immune response in humans. IFNγ is produced by Th1 type T lymphocytes and by activated natural killer cells. It upregulates the expression of IL-1, platelet activating factor and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages.