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Anthropology by Daniel Garrison Brinton

By Daniel Garrison Brinton

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For example, the [fl sound above can be described as a sound produced by: (1) making the lower lip touch the upper teeth; (2)expelling the airstream emanating from the lungs in a constricted fashion; and (3) keeping the vocal cords (in the larynx) taut (non-vibrating) . To render this phonetic description efficient, the three articulatory activities are designated as follows: feature (1)is termed interdental, (2)fricative,and ( 3 ) voiceless. Thus, the phonetic symbol [fl, known more technically as a phone, stands for a voiceless interdentalfricative.

T h s dance form is apparently deployed when the cache of food is nearby: When the food source is further away, then the bee dances in a “wagging” fashion, moving in a straight line while wagging its abdomen from side to side and then returning to its starting point: The straight line in the dance form points in the direction of the food source, the energy level of the dance indicates how rich the food source is, and the tempo provides information about its distance. Although this is indeed THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE 45 a remarkable communication system, it is still vastly different from language, as Hockett showed by comparing the two as follows: Feature Bee Dancing Auditory-vocal channel Broadcast transmission and directional reception Rapid fading Interchangeability Total feedback Specialization Semanticity Arbitrariness Discreteness Displacement Productivity Traditional transmission Duality of patterning no Language Yes ?

Diamond’s work became widely discussed within AL because he used a large database to support his theory. But perhaps the first true scientific approach to the origins question can be found in the work of the American structuralist Morris Swadesh (see especially his posthumous 1971 volume, 27ze Origin and THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE 29 Diversification of Language). Swadesh divided the origin and evolution of language into four primary periods, in synchrony with the major ages: (1) the Eolithic (the dawn stone age), (2) the Paleolithic (the Old Stone Age), (3) the Neolithic (the New Stone Age), and (4) the Historical, spanning the last 10,000 years.

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