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Anthropologie de la guerre by Sigmund Freud

By Sigmund Freud

Malaise dans los angeles civilisation (1931) et Considération actuelle sur los angeles guerre et l. a. mort (1915), les deux textes présentés ici dans leur model originale et dans une nouvelle traduction française, nous font découvrir un Freud « politique », qui réfléchit sur los angeles guerre et cherche à intégrer ces réflexions dans une recherche plus spécifiquement psychanalytique sur les motives permanentes des conflits en général.
Dans le texte de 1915, Freud déplore naturellement l. a. guerre en en montrant les effets dévastateurs sur l. a. tradition en général, mais il y voit aussi l. a. possibilité d’exprimer, passant outre les effets de censure, l. a. violence « primitive » des pulsions, qu’il est useless de vouloir constamment réprimer.

En 1931, Malaise dans l. a. civilisation marque l’intégration à los angeles théorie freudienne de l. a. suggestion de pulsion de mort, mise au jour par l. a. psychanalyste russe Sabina Spielrein. Si los angeles place qu’adopte Freud dans ce texte à l’égard de los angeles guerre imminente peut sembler fataliste, ce serait le trahir que de réduire son angle à l. a. résignation. Freud est convaincu que le consentement à los angeles guerre n’est pas simplement le fait de ceux qui vont se rendre coupables de l. a. déclencher, mais qu’il a des racines plus profondes et qu’il exerce ainsi de manière très insidieuse sa séduction sur de très vastes cercles. Il comprend aussi très vite ce que sera l’« esprit de Munich », dont il constate les prodromes dans les atermoiements de l. a. SDN.

Ces deux textes essentiels sont suivis d’une nouvelle traduction de los angeles lettre à Albert Einstein datée de 1933, intitulée Pourquoi los angeles guerre ?

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Consequently, there is a "subversive" tension inherent in the paternal imago and reproduced by the social institution of the bourgeois family: the paternal authority that represses sexuality at the same time serves as the model of sexual adulthood (the ego ideal) for the narcissistic child. The result of this tension is pre­ cisely the anxiety and confusion about sexuality characteristic of the modern human condition (CF, 70-71). A significant level of Lacan's argument here involves his repudiation of the biologically grounded and anthropologically suspect Freudian myth of the "primal horde"5 in favor of his own more structural account of the interaction of imaginary representations and external perceptions (CF, 54-55).

The fundamental alien­ ation that results from her identification with her mirror image is, thus, something essentially felt by the young child, and Lacan would seem at this point to be committed to the claim that some such alienat­ ing feeling must be a more or less permanent characteristic of human consciousness. To get beyond this conclusion and beyond the demand for a careful phenomenological description of such feelings of alien­ ation, Lacan would need to elaborate a radically antiphenomenological notion of the unconscious, and it is to precisely this that he turns at the beginning of the 1950s.

As an example of this Lacan sketches the way megalomania and its atten­ dant psychotic separation from reality might owe their form to a boy's modeling himself upon his brother, taking his brother as his ego ideal. Lacan suggests that the "primitive homosexuality" involved here would produce an ego ideal "too narcissistic not to debase the structure of sublimation" (CF, 86). In this way the fraternal imago and the intru­ sion complex can be seen to provide a pattern within which the psychotic's behavior will find a place.

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