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Ancient Panama: Chiefs in Search of Power by Mary W. Helms

By Mary W. Helms

Ancient Panama provides intensity to our realizing of the political and spiritual elite ruling in Panama on the time of the ecu conquest. Mary W. Helms's examine enormously expands wisdom of the distribution, quantity, and structural nature of those pre-Columbian chiefdoms.

In addition, Helms delves extra deeply into decide upon features of old Panamanian political platforms, together with the connection among elite pageant and mainly prestige, using sumptuary items within the expression of elite energy, and the function of elites in neighborhood and long-distance alternate networks. In an important departure from conventional considering, she proposes that the quest for esoteric wisdom used to be extra very important than fiscal alternate in constructing long-distance touch between chiefdoms.

The fundamental information for the learn are derived from sixteenth-century Spanish documents through Oviedo y Valdés, Andagoya, Balboa, and others. the writer additionally turns to ethnographic information from modern local humans of Panama, Colombia, tropical the US, and Polynesia for analogy and comparability. the result's a hugely leading edge research which illuminates not just pre-Columbian Panamanian elites but additionally the character of chiefdoms as a particular cultural type.

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Page 2 What follows is the sanitized version of Operation PBSUCCESS deposited in the National Archives in May 1997 by the CIA. Every effort has been made to reproduce the redacted version of the text exactly; blank spaces in the text, notes, and appendixes represent excisions of approximately the same length in the sanitized version. Appendix C reproduces, with new explanatory notes, excerpts from related documents released at the same time. Page 3 Secret Operation PBSUCCESS The United States and Guatemala 1952-1954 Nicholas Cullather History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Washington, DC 1994 Secret Page 4 Warning Notice Intelligence Sourecs Methods Involved (WNINTEL) National Security Information Unauthorized Disclosure Subject to Criminal Sanetions Classified by 0986542 Declassify: OADR Derived from multiple sourecs All material on this page is unclassified.

The Revolution of 1944 Once the center of Mayan civilization, Guatemala had been reduced by centuries of Spanish rule to an impoverished outback when, at the turn of the 20th century, a coffee boom drew investors, marketers, and railroad builders to the tiny Caribbean nation. The descendants of Spanish colonizers planted coffee on large estates, fincas, worked by Indian laborers. Coffee linked Guatemala to a world market in which Latin American, African, and Indonesian producers competed to supply buyers in Europe and the United States with low-priced beans.

Declassifying is hard on the eyes and demands steady attention to detail, not ideal work for men as far past retirement age as many of them were. What's more, agency policy required that they receive salaries equivalent to the highest salary they had while on duty, often twice that of a new recruit or a clerical worker. This assured that funds allotted for declassification served mainly to brighten the golden years of agency pensioners. I left the agency in July 1993, a year and a day after I started.

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