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An Introduction to Parallel Programming by Tobias Wittwer

By Tobias Wittwer

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High Performance Computing and the Art of Parallel Programming, An introduction for geographers, social scientists and engineers. Routledge, London. , 2000. Architecture and use of shared and distributed memory parallel computers. Published by Willi Schönauer, Karlsruhe. , 2005. Minimizing development and maintenance costs in supporting persistently optimized BLAS. Software: Practice and Experience 35 (2), 101-121. Index ACML, 18 ATLAS, 19 BLACS, 21 BLAS, 16, 17, 21, 25, 30, 31, 33, 46, 49 bus, 6, 11, 44 ccNUMA, 8, 13 cluster, 9, 11, 38, 47, 48 conjugate gradients, 40 crossbar switch, 7 DGEMM, 25 distributed memory, 1, 7, 9, 19, 21, 34, 46 DPOSV, 30, 33, 36, 46 DSYRK, 25, 30, 31, 33, 36, 46 efficiency, 24, 33, 39, 49 FLOPS, 24 FPU, 4, 24 gfortran, 2, 16 Goto BLAS, 18 grid, 10 ifort, 2, 15 Infiniband, 9, 20, 38, 47, 48 multithreading, 15, 19, 20, 31, 36, 46, 49 MVAPICH, 20 Myrinet, 9, 20 node, 9, 20, 34, 39, 46, 47 Open MPI, 20 OpenMP, 1, 2, 15, 16, 24, 31, 43, 48 performance, 5, 7, 8, 11, 24, 33, 39, 44 pipeline, 4 preconditioning, 41, 42, 44, 46 process, 34, 46, 47 profiling, 24, 42 ScaLAPACK, 1, 21, 33, 49 SHALE, 2, 27 shared memory, 1, 6, 9, 15, 20, 33 SIMD, 5 SMP, 6, 9, 36 spherical harmonic analysis, 2, 27 superscalar, 4 thread, 31, 32, 40, 44, 49 timing, 23, 30 vectorisation, 5 LAPACK, 16, 17, 21, 30, 31, 33, 46, 49 MIMD, 5 MKL, 17 MPI, 1, 19, 24, 33, 46, 49 MPICH, 20 MPP, 8, 12 53 An Introduction to Parallel Programming Many scientic computations require a considerable amount of computing time.

11. The blocks are distributed over the threads. 3. CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD 45 using a second thread actually delivers a performance gain. When using the Goto BLAS, you may need to set the environment variable GOTO_NUM_THREADS to 1. 0d0, N2(1,threadnum),nmax+1) ... Note that a_block has the dimensions u × blocksize, and not blocksize × u. This is due to Fortran’s column-major array storage (arrays are stored column by column, not line by line as in C). build_a_line needs only one row of A at a time, which is achieved by making the rows the columns.

This computing time can be reduced by distributing a problem over several processors. Multiprocessor computers used to be quite expensive, and not everybody had access to them. Since 2005, x86-compatible CPUs designed for desktop computers are available with two “cores”, which essentially makes them dualprocessor systems. More cores per CPU are to follow. This cheap extra computing power has to be used efciently, which equires parallel programming. Parallel programming methods that work on dual-core PCs also work on larger shared memory systems, and a program designed for a cluster or other type of distributed memory system will also perform on a dual-core (or multi-core) PC.

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