By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current research offers an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it really is spoken via nearly 30,000 humans, consisting regularly of the ethnic workforce of the Idaksahak who're dwelling within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The publication is split into 4 chapters giving an entire assessment: the 1st brief bankruptcy offers information regarding the historical past of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological positive factors of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it's proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. moreover, any verb root that's of Songhay beginning is suppleted while derived and a semantic an identical of Tamasheq beginning takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is usually current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization procedure used depends upon the etymology of the time period, a characteristic paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers types of noun words. additionally, the differing kinds of straightforward clauses are taken care of in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization thoughts also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately advanced sentences offers subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions while derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
The perfective negation nǝ-, before which ɣ is retained. PERF-kill I did not kill A special case is provided by the imperfective morpheme IMPERF b- , which becomes a voiceless fricative /f/ when followed by a voiceless consonant. 2). 4 Sibilant harmony We have not found mono-morphemic words that contain two different sibilants (/s/, /z/, /ṣ/, /ẓ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/). Place of articulation and voicing of these sounds are the same within the word. (29) Examples of sibilant harmony azágaz ázanzo áaẓǝẓ aẓámmaẓṛa afásas alxasáyis faṣúṣ aṣáaṇǝṣ áʃʃaʃ kǝrʃiʃin aʒáaʒib ʒíʒil gloss wild cat (Felix silvestris) milk (kind of) vulture, sp.
Basically all consonants can follow each other. Only very few combinations are not attested (see also Nicolaï 1979). 2. 3 Long consonants All consonants can be geminated, with the exception of /ɣ/, /h/ /ʕ/ and /ħ/. Long consonants are analyzed as a succession of two identical consonants. We give here a few minimal pairs: (12) Minimal pairs with long consonants lexeme yíli imǝḍan tǝbǝt yíṇǝṣ albána híjen yíẓǝḷ iháran baarén gloss to go out pastures to be stolen to hobble, (onesided) sickness (kind of) camp to pay herds (small animals) horses lexeme yílli imǝḍḍan tǝbbǝt yíṇṇǝṣ albánna hijjén yíẓẓǝḷ íharran barrén gloss to soar (bird) tears to knock to pull away (with teeth) bricklayer pistons to stretch out lions children Consonantal length is independent of stress, as shown in the table below.
To play around to carry on shoulder to have large holes tearing apart (n) to lose one’s way to sniff (water) pers. name creation to work to sniff (water) custom wooden tablet bone (kind of) toy mat custom to be healed pers. name to reach woman zǝrgǝz aɣázar tázlǝft ágliz ʃǝrɣǝʃ áʃʃaɣal tíʃkǝnt ʃǝrɣǝʃ ṣǝḍǝṣ íṣṣakan yíbbǝṣ ʒíʒil tamáaʒaq éeẓa yíẓgǝg yíẓḷǝg ɣúruuru to walk fast pond eagle, sp. left over (n) to facilitate work (n) greeting to facilitate to hit songs to chew to draw water Tamasheq grass, sp.