Posted on

A grammar of Logba (Ikpana) by Kofi Dorvlo

By Kofi Dorvlo

Show description

Read or Download A grammar of Logba (Ikpana) PDF

Similar grammar books

Interaction and Grammar

Many students of language have approved a view of grammar as a essentially delineated and internally coherent constitution that's top understood as a self-contained approach. The individuals to this quantity suggest a really diverse method of impending and figuring out grammar: taking as their place to begin the location that the very integrity of grammar is certain up with its position within the greater schemes of the association of human behavior, relatively social interplay, their essays discover a wealthy number of linkages among interplay and grammar.

Portuguese Syntax: New Comparative Studies (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)

This quantity is a suite of formerly unpublished articles concentrating on the next points of Portuguese syntax: clause constitution, clitic placement, notice order version, pronominal procedure, verb flow, quantification, and distribution of debris. The articles are written in the rules and parameters framework and distinction Portuguese with different Romance languages.

La Grammaire du latin

Le Bescherelle Grammaire du latin est une grammaire très easy et complète de l. a. langue latine. Il a pour objectif de permettre los angeles lecture, le traduction et l'interprétation des textes. Sujet traité: Langues Description écriture: Ce Bescherelle comprend quatre events : - écriture et prononciation; - morphologie; - syntaxe; - grammaire de l'énoncé et du texte.

Semantics and morphosyntactic variation : qualities and the grammar of property concepts

This ebook explores a key factor in linguistic idea, the systematic version in shape among semantic equivalents throughout languages. contrasting perspectives of the position of lexical which means within the research of such edition are available within the literature: (i) uniformity, wherein lexical that means is common, and version arises from idiosyncratic ameliorations within the stock and phonological form of language-particular sensible fabric, and (ii) transparency, wherein systematic version in shape arises from systematic edition within the which means of simple lexical goods.

Additional info for A grammar of Logba (Ikpana)

Sample text

F. SOUND a/ɔ u/ɔ u/o ɛ/a e/i i/a MINIMAL PAIRS na ‘walk’ du ‘extinguish’ ukú ‘drum’ tɛ́ COMPL me ‘here' inyɔ ‘two’ nɔ dɔ okú tá mi anyɔ ‘drink’ ‘follow’ ‘place’ ‘shoot’ ‘take’ ‘louse’ There are no phonemically nasalized vowels in Logba. Generally, all the vowels become nasalised when they occur immediately after a nasal consonant. The spreading of the nasalisation is rightwards. gba mõ ‘farm’ ‘two’ ‘swallow’ ‘bowl’ NEG imɔ̃́ ŋṹ nyã ɔdzátsumɛ̃ ‘neck’ ‘see’ ‘live’ ‘kitchen’ The front vowel /ɛ/ has a limited occurrence in initial position in the language.

All vowel affixes have two forms, one [+ATR] and the other [-ATR]. Selection of either of the forms depends on which harmony set the vowels in the lexical stem belong. If the stem is [+ATR], one of the following vowels will be chosen: /o u i e /. If on the other hand, it is [-ATR] it will come from the following set: /ɔ ɛ/. This is illustrated in the words below: 43. e-tsí e-ke ‘down’ ‘root’ e-bí e-ví ‘cocoa beans’ ‘sun’ 44. ɛ-dzɛ ‘women’ ɛ-kpɛ ‘year’ 45. o-tsú o-kú ‘forehead’ ‘place’ o-fú o-vu ‘guest’ ‘market’ 46.

The meaning of a word depends on the tone of each syllable as well as the vowels and consonants of which the word is made. In the examples in (69), the pairs of words have the same consonants and vowels and they are in the same sequence. However, the difference in their meanings is brought about by tone. 69 zɔ avi dzi ubi fǒ ‘sell’ ‘axe’ ‘tie firmly’ ‘wound’ ‘brother’ zɔ́ aví dzí ubí fó ‘go’ ‘groundnut’ ‘stand’ ‘child’ ‘wash’ Monosyllabic words can either be Low tone or High tone. (70) are examples of Low tone verb roots and (71) High tone verb roots respectively.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.03 of 5 – based on 7 votes