By Kofi Dorvlo
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Additional info for A grammar of Logba (Ikpana)
F. SOUND a/ɔ u/ɔ u/o ɛ/a e/i i/a MINIMAL PAIRS na ‘walk’ du ‘extinguish’ ukú ‘drum’ tɛ́ COMPL me ‘here' inyɔ ‘two’ nɔ dɔ okú tá mi anyɔ ‘drink’ ‘follow’ ‘place’ ‘shoot’ ‘take’ ‘louse’ There are no phonemically nasalized vowels in Logba. Generally, all the vowels become nasalised when they occur immediately after a nasal consonant. The spreading of the nasalisation is rightwards. gba mõ ‘farm’ ‘two’ ‘swallow’ ‘bowl’ NEG imɔ̃́ ŋṹ nyã ɔdzátsumɛ̃ ‘neck’ ‘see’ ‘live’ ‘kitchen’ The front vowel /ɛ/ has a limited occurrence in initial position in the language.
All vowel affixes have two forms, one [+ATR] and the other [-ATR]. Selection of either of the forms depends on which harmony set the vowels in the lexical stem belong. If the stem is [+ATR], one of the following vowels will be chosen: /o u i e /. If on the other hand, it is [-ATR] it will come from the following set: /ɔ ɛ/. This is illustrated in the words below: 43. e-tsí e-ke ‘down’ ‘root’ e-bí e-ví ‘cocoa beans’ ‘sun’ 44. ɛ-dzɛ ‘women’ ɛ-kpɛ ‘year’ 45. o-tsú o-kú ‘forehead’ ‘place’ o-fú o-vu ‘guest’ ‘market’ 46.
The meaning of a word depends on the tone of each syllable as well as the vowels and consonants of which the word is made. In the examples in (69), the pairs of words have the same consonants and vowels and they are in the same sequence. However, the difference in their meanings is brought about by tone. 69 zɔ avi dzi ubi fǒ ‘sell’ ‘axe’ ‘tie firmly’ ‘wound’ ‘brother’ zɔ́ aví dzí ubí fó ‘go’ ‘groundnut’ ‘stand’ ‘child’ ‘wash’ Monosyllabic words can either be Low tone or High tone. (70) are examples of Low tone verb roots and (71) High tone verb roots respectively.